Setting up a React development environment manually

React (or ReactJS, developed by Facebook) has become one of the top popular Javascript frameworks in the world of today. A lot of boilerplate projects and startup kits have been created to make setting up a React development environment easier, including Create React App (CRA for short, see, Facebook’s official starter kit. A search on the web for “React starter kit” or “React boilerplates” returns quite some results. Some will set up a whole toolchain and project layout for you, others are only for specific goals or features.

There’s quite some articles around about this topic but almost all start out with CRA and they don’t go much further than setting up the most basic environment. One big disadvantage of a starter kit like CRA is it will include a lot of dependencies and packages you may not need on a specific project, causing bloat. Also on a professional project we often need more control over and customization on our environment. In case of CRA you will end up ejecting CRA (which has its own issues), having to figure out and tweak manually all the options and configurations.

So let’s set up a ReactJS development environment WITHOUT using a starter kit or boilerplate, but even if you start out with one I hope this article can be helpful and provide more insight. Also I will follow the “12 factor app” principles ( for modern DevOps and SaaS development. I use a Windows 10 Professional machine to work on, VS Code as editor, Chrome as browser and Powershell 5.1 as command line (CLI).

Getting started

I assume you have at least some understanding of how ReactJS, Javascript and other web technology work. A lot of the tools involved need node.js so we have to install that if we don’t have it already on our machine. From experience I know on a development machine you will use different node versions on different projects quite often. I recommend to install the node version manager (nvm) first, so you can easily manage and switch between node.js versions on one machine. You need to uninstall any node.js already installed first.

To install nvm using Powershell you can first install Chocolatey, a package manager for Windows that works from command prompts similar to RPM on Linux. Instructions on installing Chocolatey are on

After installing Chocolatey, close all Powershell windows and reopen one with elevated permissions. Now to install nvm:

choco install -y nvm

The -y flag automatically confirms any prompts for confirmation. Then to install a node.js version:

nvm install xx.xx.xx

with xx.xx.xx being the version, or

nvm install latest

to get the latest version of node.js. With node.js also the node.js package manager npm will be installed. After installation you need to tell your system to use a specific version:

nvm use xx.xx.xx

(NOTE: if you plan to deploy to Azure you need to match your node.js version with one supported since Azure does not support all node.js versions. To check, go to the app service in Azure you want to deploy to, then under “Development tools” choose “Advanced tools”, en click on the “Go” link. This will open Kudu in a new window, showing the environment for the App Service. Under “Rest API” click “Runtime versions” and you will see a JSON output giving the available versions for various runtimes, including node.js.)

Next install yarn. Using yarn or npm is also a matter of personal preference, but yarn has more advanced caching and concurrency and therefore is faster in most cases, which is a thing to consider in professional build environments. You can install yarn using npm but the yarn team advises to use a OS-native package manager, so we use Chocolatey again:

choco install -y yarn

You may need to close and reopen Powershell again before yarn works. Presuming you have your code editor already installed (VS Code in my case), we’re now ready to start our ReactJS project.

Creating the project

Create a root folder for our new ReactJS project, go to VS Code and open this folder. Then do “Save workspace as…” and give it a name to create a new VS Code workspace for our project. Now all we do in our project folder will be picked up by the VS Code workspace.

Next we’re going to Powershell again. From now on, unless said otherwise all Powershell commands we use will be in the project root folder we just created. So go there in Powershell and do:

yarn init -y

This will create a package.json with default values in the folder. You can always change things manually later. For now add the following line:

"engines" : { "node" : "xx.xx.xx" }

With xx.xx.xx being the used node.js version (note: for all DTAP environments it should be the same; “12-factor-app” again). You can give a range to cover for some different versions but keep that range as small as possible to avoid compatibility issues. See for possible options.

Now, in or project root folder, create the following folder structure:


The public folder will be for assets that need to be copied to our app root without any processing. Everything in src will be source code and assets. build will be the output folder for our builds.

We can also set up Git to have a code repository. First in the root folder create a .gitignore file, and put in here at least the /node_modules and /build folders, yarn.error.log and any other folders or files that need to be ignored. Then in Powershell do:

git init

and we now have a local git repository. You can do this later at any time, just don’t forget to add existing files you need versioned. Of course you can connect your local repository to a remote. There is enough information on the web about that. Following the “12-factor app” principles all developers should work from one code base in a central repository.

We are going to build a ReactJS app so logically we need to install the ReactJS libraries. In Powershell:

yarn add react react-dom

This will install the latest version of the basic ReactJS libraries in our project. If you use an npm version older than 5.0.0 you need to add the –save flag as well to indicate the dependency of your project output on these libraries.

Creating the plumbing

We will create a single HTML page index.html for our ReactJS app to run. Usually static items like a favicon.ico icon and robots.txt go in the public folder, but the index.html goes into the /src folder because we will use it as template for a plugin to inject the necessary references. Therefore it will be processed and not just copied as the assets in /public. Fill out the basic HTML outline. If you have the “HTML-Boilerplate” or a similar extension installed in VS Code this is done very quickly (

Within the HTML <body> write:

<div id="root"></div>

This will be the main placeholder where our app goes. Add any meta tags, icon references and other stuff you need in your HTML header, or if you plan to use server-side rendering (SSR) you can use React Helmet (

Next we will create the top level component for our app. We want our project organized logically when it grows. In the /src/components folder create a folder App. In that folder create a file App.jsx containing the following code:

import React, { Component} from "react";

class App extends Component{
      <div className="App">
        <h1> Hello, React World! </h1>

export default App;

We still need to bind our app root component to the <div> element in index.html. In the src folder itself create a file index.jsx containing the following:

import React from "react";
import ReactDOM from "react-dom";
import App from "./components/App/App";

ReactDOM.render(<App />, document.getElementById("root"));

As you can see all this file does is render the component App in the <div> we created in our index.html. For some tools we need to tell this is our starting point, so in package.json change the “main” attribute to:

"main": "src/index.jsx

We now have our basic project outline and plumbing. The one thing to do is add references to the build result (our actual app) in index.html. You can add hardcoded <script> and <link> tags for that but we will use a Webpack plugin later on to do this dynamically for us. You can also add a <noscript> tag with a text to notify any users that have a browser without Javascript (although I don’t think you can do anything with a browser nowadays if you have no Javascript enabled).

Note there is not one recommended or best structure for ReactJS projects, so you can keep a different structure as long as you make all references match up.

Provisioning and the toolchain

Now let’s set up our tooling. But first we will do something called provisioning: we will set up the environment for our tools so they have a context to run in.


Dotenv is a tool that allows us to define environment variables in a file, which will then be passed by node.js to our tools as properties on process.env. In Powershell:

yarn add dotenv

Then create a file .env in the root folder of our project. In here you can define any environment variable you may need in your project. Following the “12-factor-app principles” again configuration concerning the environment should be in environment variables. So we put in our .env now:


We will now be able to access environment variables in our build scripts code as properties on process.env. Since environment variables are context for and not part of the application build process, you should add the .env file to .gitignore. Also it is strongly recommended not to use .env in a production environment for security reasons.


To use React’s Javascript Extensions (JSX) we need transpiling of JSX into Javascript during the build process. Also modern Javascript frameworks like ReactJS may use specifications of Javascript not available in older browser versions. For all this we will use Babel. This is an extensible transpiler using plugins that can transform JSX and modern Javascript (or more precise modern ECMAScript) and other extension expressions into Javascript that even older browsers can run.
To install Babel and the necessary transformers we go to Powershell again:

yarn add -D @babel/core @babel/cli @babel/preset-env @babel/preset-react

Note the -D flag since we only need Babel during the development build process. It is not a dependency for the runtime version of our app.

Babel needs some configuration. For our project, in the root folder create a file .babelrc containing the following:

  "presets": ["@babel/env", "@babel/preset-react"]

Despite the lack of a json file extension this is a json file. Note there’s no difference if you use “preset-env” instead of “env”, the “preset-“ part is optional.

Babel has a few different ways to be configured (one is including a key in the package.json instead of a configuration file) but we use the .babelrc one here. See the Babel documentation about configuration for more details.


So far we set up our project outline and our first tool, but we need a way to run tools in order and create output without a lot of repetitive manual tasks. This is where WebPack comes into play. WebPack has arguably become the most popular Javascript development tool, being a module bundler and extensible task runner in one. In order to install WebPack we go to PowerShell again and do:

yarn add -D webpack webpack-cli webpack-merge babel-loader

As you see we also install the command line interface for WebPack so we can call it from Powershell. Note the -D flag again; WebPack is not a runtime dependency. We also install a loader so webpack can use Babel. See for details and an overview of loaders in WebPack.

In a configuration script we tell webpack how and when to use loaders and plugins. By default this is a file named webpack.config.js. However configuration for development quite often differs from test or production. To avoid having to put conditionals and checks everywhere we will use separate configuration files per environment type and merge it with a common configuration file. That’s why we also installed webpack-merge with the above. In our project root we create three files:


In webpack.common.js put the following code:

const path = require("path");
const webpack = require("webpack");
const envLoadResult = require('dotenv').config();

module.exports = {
  module: {
    rules: [
        test: /\.(js|jsx)$/,
        exclude: /(node_modules|bower_components)/,
        loader: "babel-loader",
        options: { presets: ["@babel/env"] }
  resolve: { extensions: ["*", ".js", ".jsx"] },
  output: {
    path: path.resolve(__dirname, "build"),
    publicPath: "/",
    filename: "scripts/[name]_[hash].js"
  plugins: [new webpack.HotModuleReplacementPlugin()]


const path = require("path");
const webpack = require("webpack"); 
const { merge } = require('webpack-merge');
const commonConfig = require('./webpack.common.js');
const envLoadResult = require('dotenv').config();

let devConfig = {
    entry: "./src/index.jsx",
    mode: "development",
    devtool: "inline-source-map"

module.exports = (env, argv) => {
    if(envLoadResult.error) {
        throw "Error loading environment variables from .env file.";
    return merge(commonConfig, devConfig);

And in

const path = require("path");
const webpack = require("webpack"); 
const { merge } = require('webpack-merge');
const commonConfig = require('./webpack.common.js');
const envLoadResult = require('dotenv').config();

let prodConfig = {
    entry: "./src/index.jsx",
    mode: "production"

module.exports = (env, argv) => {
    return merge(commonConfig, prodConfig);

You can find easily on the web what the various parts of the config files do. Note the mode setting in the specific configuration files: this property tells webpack to do optimizations like minification for production builds. It also lets Webpack set the process.env.NODE_ENV environment variable to either production or development.

I assigned the configurations to variables, then export it through a function instead of directly export as an object, as often shown in examples. This allows us to set configuration properties based on passed command line arguments and environment variables. The env parameter will have the environment variables from the .env file as properties, while argv will have any passed commandline parameters as properties.

We add 2 build command to our package.json, one for a dev build and one for a production build:

"scripts": {
    "dev:build": " webpack --config",
    "prod:build": "webpack --config"

Now when we type yarn dev:build (or npm run dev:build) it will create a development output in the /build folder. Similar goes for the production build. However it will bundle everything in one big script file, and it cannot handle things like images. We will fix that later.

Inject build result references into index.html

As said before we don’t use hard references in our index.html but we will use a webpack plugin. This way if we change or add anything it will be handled automatically by WebPack. Install the plugin with:

yarn add -D html-webpack-plugin

Now near the top of our webpack.common.js put:

const HtmlWebpackPlugin = require('html-webpack-plugin');

And to the plugins, add as first plugin of the array:

new HtmlWebpackPlugin({
     template: path.resolve(__dirname, 'src/index.html'),
     filename: path.resolve(__dirname, 'build/index.html')

Clear /build folder on build

Clearing the /build folder for every build is important since we will change output filenames using hashes when they change, using Webpack’s [hash] tag. This is so updated versions of code files and assets are loaded correctly instead of old versions from caches. There’s a simple webpack plugin to clean the output folder on every build:

yarn add -D clean-webpack-plugin

Add to webpack.common.js the following:

  • near the top: const { CleanWebpackPlugin } = require('clean-webpack-plugin');
  • to the plugins array: new CleanWebpackPlugin()

Now the /build folder should be cleaned up on every build.

Hot Module Replacement (HMR) for ReactJS

HMR enables you to see changes to your code on the fly appear in the browser. React Hot Loader (RHL) does this without fully reloading the page every time and with keeping state in React. At the moment of writing the React-Hot-Loader page mentions it will be replaced by React Fast Refresh once that’s stable. See  

Part we already set up in our webpack.common.js: the HotModuleReplacementPlugin. But to make it work we need to do some more work.

First install the React Hot Loader plugin. Note the -D flag is optional since the plugin will disable itself in a non-development environment, but to minimize unnecessary dependencies in production builds we pass the flag anyway. Powershell from our project root again:

yarn add -D react-hot-loader

To our Babel configuration .babelrc add the following attribute:

"plugins": ["react-hot-loader/babel"]

Then add to App.jsx:

import {hot} from "react-hot-loader";

and change the export line to:

export default hot(module)(App);

Note only the root App module needs to be wrapped by the hot returned function, other module exports are normal.

Setting up a (development) server

So far we set up some tooling for building a ReactJS app, but we need a way to run our app on our dev server so we can see some results. Easiest is to install the Webpack dev server, but it’s only a simple static file server and doesn’t support features like server side rendering (SSR) or middleware. So for our environment we will use the Express framework (

First we have to install Express and the necessary middleware:

yarn add express webpack-hot-middleware webpack-dev-middleware

Then in, replace the entry property with the following:

entry: [

In the project root folder, create a file server.js, with the following code:

const express = require('express');
const webpack = require('webpack');
const webpackHotMiddleware = require('webpack-hot-middleware');
const webpackDevMiddleware = require('webpack-dev-middleware');
const config = require ('./');

const compiler = webpack(config());
const xpf = express();

const port = process.env.PORT;
const url=process.env.PUBLIC_URL;

  webpackDevMiddleware(compiler, { /* webpack middleware options */ })
).listen(port, () => {
  console.log('Listening at '+ url + ':' + port + '/');

Quite often a variable app is used to assign the express object but I prefer to name it something different (xpf in this case) since app is already used elsewhere.

Note the webpack configuration config() is written as a function and not an object due to the way we exported the! Don’t forget the parentheses here or the build will fail. What options you can put in for the middleware you can find on

Now all we need is a command to start our dev server and open a browser window. We install a handy option for our scripts in package.json named Concurrently:

yarn add concurrently

This enables us to run multiple commands simultaneously with a script command. To scripts in package.json add:

"start": "concurrently \"node server.js\" \"start http://localhost:3000\""

Make sure the port matches with the PORT environment variable; since package.json is a static json file we cannot import environment variables in it. Also note the escaped quotes, they are necessary for Concurrently to work.

Now with a yarn start (or npm start) our app will build, be served by Express and shown in a browser window. Do note we didn’t actually implement server side rendering (SSR) here, we merely have Express serve our app similar as webpack-dev-server would do, but with more control and configuration options and the possibility to add SSR.

Check in Chrome devtools console the hot replacement (RHL) is working. You can check this also by verifying that while running, if you change anything in App.jsx it should show immediately in the browser without reloading the page. With newer ReactJS versions there’s one thing to fix. If you opened the Devtools console you may have seen the warning “react-🔥-dom patch is not detected” and some newer features may not work. For that we need to add an entry to the rules array in our webpack.common.js:

     test: /\.(js|jsx)$/,
     use: 'react-hot-loader/webpack',
     include: /node_modules/

At this point you should have a basic React app working, but so far we can’t handle styling or images yet. We need to do more for that.


Modern UI framework development needs more than plain CSS for styling to work with. We will set up SCSS as it works well with ReactJS but any alternative will do. Also the normal “style-loader” WebPack will bundle everything in one package, but we want our resulting stylesheets to be separate from script code. Therefore we use the MiniCssExtractPlugin for WebPack. In Powershell do:

yarn add -D mini-css-extract-plugin styles-loader css-loader sass-loader node-sass

In webpack.common.js, add near the top:

const MiniCssExtractPlugin = require('mini-css-extract-plugin');

add to plugins:

new MiniCssExtractPlugin({filename : './styles/[name]_[hash].css'})

and add the following to the rules array:

  test: /\.scss$/,
  use: [MiniCssExtractPlugin.loader, "css-loader", "sass-loader"]

Make sure the loaders in use: are listed in the above order. Note we also installed styles-loader even though we don’t reference it here, but without it any import directives for css in your jsx files will fail.

In our project structure, make SCSS files per component in the component’s folder, so for the root component App create an App.scss file in the App folder in components and put any styling you want for App in there. Notice we don’t need to add any stylesheet references in html. The earlier installed HtmlWebpackPlugin automatically handles the injection for stylesheet references.


Now for images. We need to set up a file loader for it. First, do:

yarn add -D file-loader

And add to the rules in webpack.config.js:

   test: /\.(gif|png|jpe?g|svg)$/i,
   options: {
     name: 'assets/images/[name]_[hash].[ext]'

Create and /images folder in the /src folder, put some image in there and import/ add it to App.jsx. The image should display. However there’s no optimizations yet. For that you need to install and configure image-webpack-loader. I’m not going to show that here since it’s covered in detail on

Static assets

One thing that is not yet happening now is our static assets like favicon and other stuff in the /public folder being copied to our build output. And maybe we have more static assets in other places. Again, there’s a WebPack plugin to take care of this all:

yarn add -D copy-webpack-plugin

Add to the top of webpack.common.js:

const CopyPlugin = require('copy-webpack-plugin');

And to the plugins array:

new CopyPlugin({
    patterns: [
      { from: "public", to: "" }

CopyWebPackPlugin has a lot of options for filtering, locations and even transformations so it is a very handy plugin for handling folders with static assets. See on You can also set an option to limit concurrent requests to the file system.

Placeholders in HTML

Sooner or later we may need to inject or replace parts in HTML. As an example let’s say we want an absolute url to our favicon in our index.html. This is dependent on the environment (defined in .env on our development machine), so we want to use a placeholder and replace it with the specific url on build. Let’s say we put in our index.html:

<link rel="icon" href="%PUBLIC_URL%/favicon.ico" />

The favicon itself will be copied to the root of our app by the previously described CopyWebpackPlugin. Now we need to replace %PUBLIC_URL% with our actual url that’s defined in .env. In comes the HtmlReplaceWebpackPlugin:

yarn add -D html-replace-webpack-plugin

Note it is dependent on HtmlWebpackPlugin which we already installed. Now create a file in the project root replacements.js (or whatever name you want to give), with the following:


module.exports = [
        pattern: '%PUBLIC_URL%',
        replacement: process.env.PUBLIC_URL + ":" + process.env.PORT

In webpack.common.js add:

const HtmlReplaceWebpackPlugin = require('html-replace-webpack-plugin');
const replacements = require ('./replacements.js');

and in the plugins array:

new HtmlReplaceWebpackPlugin (replacements)

Now in the replacements.js we can define all replacements any way we want as long as it returns a valid array for the plugin. HtmlWebpackPlugin does support complex replacement patterns so we can have much more advanced scenario’s. See on

More tools, libraries and frameworks

We now have a working environment, but for full professional development more tooling is required. With guides and directions found everywhere on the net adding them to our setup shouldn’t be too much of a problem now. Some tools that may be needed or useful I will mention here.

Code splitting

An increasing problem with growing web apps is the amount of script code and assets that are loaded with a page, especially with frameworks like ReactJS and single page apps where basically the whole app is scripted. Bundling is done to prevent a website or app having to make tons of requests over the net for script files and other assets.

On the other hand, putting all scripts and assets in one bundle makes a (first) page load having a lot of overhead on scripts that may not be used on it. Modern browser caching and delivery networks make that heavy loading often a one-time event, but still page load on a first visit from an user may become too slow, and the fast release cycles with DevOps techniques partly undo the long-term caching benefits if all scripts and assets are in one big bundle.

For that we split up script code and other assets in chuncks. Webpack already comes with a plugin for it, the SplitChunksPlugin which is already present when Webpack is installed. Al we need to do is put the following in webpack.common.js:

optimization: {
    splitChunks: {
      chunks: 'all'

The default settings already splits up our own code and the third-party code from /node_modules in separate chuncks. The references to chuncks are automatically injected in index.html by the HtmlWebpackPlugin we installed near the beginning.

On and a lot more is explained about code splitting and all the possible options for optimizations in the webpack configuration. An effective code splitting strategy is very much dependent on the app being built and the specific environment, so I don’t go into more detail here.


Due to its nature of being a dynamic and weakly typed language Javascript is more prone to runtime errors than some other programming languages. This is one reason why for larger and complex projects Typescript may be preferred. For setting up Typescript with React there is a guide on the Webpack site at

Code analysis

Another help can be the use code analysis by means of a linter. According to several sources the most common used linters are JSLint and ESLint.

Most linters can be configured but be aware of too strict rule settings. I have seen productivity severely impaired on projects because of linting rule errors in automatic builds while the code itself was working perfectly and just a warning would be fine. Remember the four core principles of the Agile manifest. Tools should be there to help the developers, not get in the way of productivity.


Automatic testing can be used to verify the code does what it is supposed to do and throws no unexpected errors. Since ReactJS is a UI framework testing often involves automating user interaction. For ReactJS the JEST framework is provided by Facebook. Other popular test frameworks and tools are Selenium, MochaJS and Jasmine.


Lodash is a popular successor of Underscore, a library with useful functions and utilities.


When a React app becomes more complex, managing the state of various parts of the app can become complex and inconsistent. Redux is a state management library often used in combination with React.

React Developer tools

This is an extension for the Chrome browser devtools (F12) and can be found in the Chrome web store. With this extra options “Components” and “Profiler” appear with the devtools when running a React app. These make it easier to debug and profile a React app.

User interface design

If you ever built sites with Javascript in the past years you have probably come across Bootstrap at some point, the library to create UI layouts and consistent CSS. Now there’s a version specific for React applications.
Another popular user interface components library is Material-UI ( Setup and use are quite extensive, but I found a clear article about it on

Using certificates

Using plain old http is not acceptable anymore, and an increasing amount of tools and libraries block or throw errors on anything not using https. This may cause problems if we use plain http for our development. You may need to install a (self-signed or even official) certificate and switch to https on your localhost as well. Here is a Powershell script to create a self-signed certificate:

# Creates a self-signed certificate in the My store
# Also copy to trusted publishers through the certificates MMC
# adjust dnsname accordingly in this script
$todaydt = Get-Date 
$10years = $todaydt.AddYears(10) 
New-SelfSignedCertificate -dnsname localhost -NotAfter $10years -CertStoreLocation cert:\LocalMachine\My

Type “mmc” in Powershell and it will open up the Microsoft Managment Console. Add the MMC certificates plugin for the computer, go to “Personal” and you should see the newly created certificate. From here you can export it to various format of key files or use win-ca ( to have node.js read the certificate from the Windows store. See on how you can adjust the code in server.js to use https.createserver(….) to create a server using Express and https.

Final note

With the above we have already quite a setup, but the world of frontend development is very volatile. Tools or libraries popular today may be obsolete and replaced with new ones tomorrow. Expect to have to learn about and use new or updated stuff constantly. Every new project should start with some research on which versions of what tools and libraries to use. For professional development only use stable versions and don’t use obscure or rarely used tools and libraries, otherwise it will be very difficult to find support for any problems you may run into.


ASP.NET MVC applications: from classic example to modern-day architecture

It is already more than ten years ago since Microsoft released ASP.NET MVC as an alternative to ASP.NET Webforms[i]. Originally intended to make the transition from desktop windows to web applications easier for developers, Webforms with its viewstates and events was often seen as a forced, non-web way of building web applications which hided the true nature of web development.

In 2007 after years of community debate ASP.NET MVC was announced as the new way for Microsoft’s web application development[ii]. However the MVC design pattern from which it derives its name is one of the oldest software design patterns around, dating back to Smalltalk in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

The Model-View-Controller (MVC) pattern

The MVC pattern can be used where data needs to be presented in some form to a user or external system. This is usually by presenting some marked-up presentation on a screen, although other forms (like JSON output of a Web API service) can be seen as presentation as well. The MVC pattern emerged as result of the object-oriented principle of separation of concerns:

  • The Model, containing data to be presented and possibly notifies the view of state changes.
  • The View, presentation logic for the data possibly containing markup and condition scripts as well as providing ways to have user input sent back to the controller.
  • The Controller, sending the view to the rendering device and handling (user) communications from the view to the model and the rest of the application.

Diagrams vary a bit but usually the MVC pattern is something like this:

Although the pattern as shown in the diagram is still valid, in the one decade of existence of ASP.NET MVC the world changed dramatically. Applications became much more complex and distributed with big data, microservices, links to various external systems, security and privacy demands and mobile and cloud-based platforms. Modern business and project delivery methods like Scrum and DevOps demanding flexible and highly testable solutions. It means the three parts of the pattern tend to become too complex and SOLID[iii] principles demand more separation of logic.

Classic ASP.NET MVC implementation

In this article I assume the reader is familiar with at least the basics of ASP.NET MVC. When creating an ASP.NET MVC application in a .NET development environment, the classic MVC structure is quite apparent in the folder structure of the (Visual Studio) project:

  |- Controllers
  |- Models
  |- Views

There will be some more folders for various things but the MVC structure is clearly visible. The Views folder will contain the razor views (.cshtml files)  in folders according to naming convention, and the Models folder will actually contain ViewModels, but in simple (CRUD[iv]) applications and examples quite often the model classes in here would reflect their data source directly.

In the traditional way the controller classes often contained one or more GET methods, possibly with a parameter to get a specific model instance to return to a view, and some POST methods through which a model instance could be created or updated. Quite often the controller connected with the datasource directly, creating some connection context either within the methods or on initialization of the controller class. So generally a controller could have a code structure like this:

public class ProductController : Controller
    SomeDbContext db=new SomeDbContext();   // The database context
    Public ProductController()
        // Code to initialize further the database context if needed

    public ActionResult Index()
        // …
        // Use the database context to get a list of products and create a list of “ProductModel” items named products to return to the “Index.cshtml” view
        // …

        return View(products);

    public ActionResult Products(int id)
        // …
        // If id is 0 redirect to Index, otherwise get the product with the specific Id from the database context and return to the “Product.cshtml” view
        // …

        return View(product);

    Public ActionResult Create(Product product)
        // Code to create a new product in the database
        // …
        return RedirectToAction(“Index”);

    Public ActionResult Update(Product product)
        // Code to update a product in the database
        // …
        return RedirectToAction(“Index”);

This is pretty much a controller that can handle giving an overview of products and do CRUD operations on products. If the logic between retrieving data and sending it to the view gets more complex it can be delegated to private functions on the controller or separate business logic classes.

Model classes could be generated and the data accessed from a database using a framework like LINQ2SQL. In the traditional object-oriented way, classes should encapsulate data and functionality, so any functions could be added directly on the class or using the “partial” class construct Microsoft had invented to deal with extending auto-generated classes [v].

In many tutorials and older examples this is the general setup shown for an ASP.NET MVC application, and for a simple CRUD applications this can still be fine.

ASP.NET MVC in modern software

Nowadays software tends to be much more complex than the traditional 3-tier approach of web applications which mainly consists of the application’s data layer (often a relational database), business logic layer and presentation layer. The above approach has several disadvantages:

  • The use of the database context as a private field in the controller causes a tight coupling between the two, making (unit) testing more complex and time consuming.
  • When complexity increases, the controller classes lose focus and violate more the SOLID and DRY principles of good object oriented design. The purpose of a controller class should be mediating between view,  (user) interaction and the underlying application.
  • Using data models in the view can give unnecessary or even unwanted access to data fields and/ or functions.
  • Models can get complex with added functions and dependencies. They are not focused on their primary role, which is holding and transferring data within and between systems.
  • With the increase of data volumes and distribution of data in many locations, it is desirable to keep data requests and data transfers (and therefore data models) as compact as possible since sending redundant data over networks and the internet can decrease performance dramatically.
  • Quite often modern software systems need to incorporate and communicate with third party components and services, for example federated authentication systems and payments providers. Usually developers have no control on how and in what format these third party systems deliver their data, causing a need for transformations and extra checks in the application.
  • Business demands and DevOps practices require fast and frequent updates of software parts. Therefore the less dependencies between components and classes, the better.

Removing the controller dependencies on datasource contexts

If we want to create automated (unit) tests, the first problem to overcome is the tight coupling between the controller and the database context. This can be done by either using reflection or some other bypass to replace the database context with a mock object on test initialization, or by using a real database for testing.

Especially the second option causes a lot of overhead for initialization before and cleanup after each test. On top of that the communication with the database will severely slow down unit tests which can be unacceptable in a DevOps environment. The first option will not always be possible since the data source may already require configuration or a valid connection when the controller instance is created.

Data for a controller can come from multiple sources and may need structuring, filtering or transforming. There is a tendency towards using web service and REST protocols for communication with data sources because of distribution and scalability. A more general term “repository” has emerged to indicate the various forms of data storage and services.

In MVC applications, we create a “Repositories” folder and in there a repository class for each(!) data source. In our example we can create a class “SqlDbRepository” to where we move the SomeDbContext and any logic involving it’s initialization and data manipulation.

Since we are implementing repository classes ourselves, we have full control on how and where the datasources are initialized and approached. We also cleaned up our controllers by moving code related to context initialization and data handling to the repository classes. By creating interfaces for the repository classes and use them in the controller, we have made our controller independent of a datasource context or client implementation and we can finds ways to create mock implementations in unit tests without much effort.

Using the right models in the right place

More complex software means quite often a view needs to combine data from various sources. Therefore models used by views may differ greatly from the models used for retrieving and transferring data. For example think of an invoice view which may need to combine data coming from a CRM system, financial system and a postal code checking system. On top of that we may have little control on format and content of the data delivered so we may need to perform transformations before using.

So the model classes in our MVC Models folder should be viewmodels tailored to the views that will use them, and the data for them should be transferred from datamodels or business logic models specific for incoming data transfers or processes. Quite often I see code for these transfers spread across a project in controllers or on model classes themselves, usually looking something like this:

var personViewModel= new PersonViewModel(PersonData persondata)
    Lastname=personData.Prefix + personData.Surname,
    Address=personData.Street + personData.HouseNumber,

From experience I know programming the logic for this can be tedious and time consuming.

It makes sense to delegate the operations for this data mapping to separate mapper classes, and put these in a separate “Mappers” folder in our project structure. Tools like Automapper ( can be a great help to reduce the code that needs to be written for this. However in high performance applications the hardcoded approach may still be favourable since these mappers can come with a small performance hit.

It is recommended to create a mapper class per target type (viewmodel). This class gets (usually static) operations taking one or more source objects. For naming convention give the class a name “MapToTargetType”, and implement operations as From(SourceType source).

A small side note: although it would make sense to keep different types of models in different folders (i.e. “ViewModels”, “DataModels”, I haven’t seen this much on real projects yet. The folder “Models” that is generated by default somehow tends to end up the place for all model classes in a project.

Constants and enumerations

Although constants and enumerations can be defined anywhere, the danger of having them in random places is developers can overlook them when they need them, and create duplicate definitions in a project. I’ve seen quite a few projects where constants and enumerations where defined in several places in the code base. Quite often the duplicates tend to differ slightly from each other, introducing bugs in the system when code is altered.

Therefore it is not a bad practice to keep these in a separate folder named “Constants” in the root structure. Then when code is altered or added and a developer needs a constant or enumeration, it is quite easy to look if it has already been defined.

Orchestrating the parts

So we have data coming in from multiple sources through our repositories and perform data mapping to our viewmodels through mapper classes. Maybe we need to do some checking or validation or other extra work. If we need to combine data in our viewmodel from different data sources we cannot do this in a repository class since these classes need to be dependent on one repository each.

This can still result in quite some complex code or unwanted dependencies in our controllers. For this I tend to create specialized service classes, where I put in this logic. Although there is no naming convention for them I usually call them “ServiceClass” preceded by the model or controller type name (i.e. “ProductServiceClass” ). References to (interfaces for) repositories are moved to these service classes, and a controller just gets a reference to a service class and calls a method on it to retrieve the viewmodel. All logic to create a controller’s viewmodel and which transcends the scope of repositories, mappers or other classes is placed in the service class.

If logic in a service class gets complex design principles (SOLID, DRY) can require a more complex structure. In that case the service class may be a façade pattern using other business logic classes in the system.

Using service classes also helps reducing code duplication in case multiple controllers use (part of) the same data and repositories. Complex logic that applies to one model class is moved from the model class to the service class too, so we get clean models with little overhead or clutter.

The new controller code

By now we should have a controller with little code in each operation, like below:

public class ProductController : Controller
    IProductServiceClass service=new ProductServiceClass ();       

    public ActionResult Index()
        List products=service.GetList();
        return View(products);

    public ActionResult Products(int id)
            return RedirectToAction(“Index”);
        Product product=service.Get (id);
        return View(product);

    Public ActionResult Create(Product product)
        bool success=service.Create (product);
        // Here can go logic to deal with failed creation
        return RedirectToAction(“Index”);

    Public ActionResult Update(Product product)
        bool success=service.Update (product);
        // Here can go logic to deal with failed creation
        return RedirectToAction(“Index”);

As you can see we now have a pretty clean controller which only contains code to deal with the interaction between view, user and the underlying system. Any controller will look like this making it fast and easy to create new views and controllers. By using generics and derive the serviceclasses from generic interfaces it is possible to make a base controller class containing the above logic, and create specific controllers by just deriving from this base class with the specific types for viewmodel and service.

Using dependency injection to remove hardcoded dependencies

Although we made our code quite SOLID and DRY with the above we still have a hardcoded dependency with a service class, and through that with the underlying repositories and other classes. Controllers in ASP.NET MVC are instanced by default from the .NET MVC framework on requests, and therefore we need a way to insert a dependency on runtime.

The last several years we have seen the rise of so-called Inversion of Control (IoC) en Dependency Injection (DI) patterns in ASP.NET MVC applications. .NET Core has native libraries for this in the Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection namespace. For standard ASP.NET MVC there are several third-party frameworks that implement these patterns like Ninject, Autofac and Unity.

Basically these all work the same. By adding one of these frameworks to our ASP.NET MVC application, we get the possibility to pass a dependency through a controller’s constructor instead of making a hardcoded reference in the controller. So instead of:

public class ProductController : Controller
    IProductServiceClass service=new ProductServiceClass (); 


We can do:

public class ProductController : Controller
    IProductServiceClass service;

    Public ProductController(IProductServiceClass injectedService)
        Service= injectedService;


Since the controller now doesn’t have hardcoded instancing of the service class, we can do the same again in our service class: instead of hardcoded creating instances of repositories, we can pass them on in the constructor of our service class by means of interface parameters. The DI framework takes care of passing on the concrete implementations and calling the right constructor.

At this point it is important to know about lifetime scope in DI frameworks. Usually you can choose from three different implementation scopes: singleton, scoped and transient. Singleton means only one instance of an implementation is created and passed on to every injected parameter of the specified interface everywhere. The difference between transient and scoped can be made clear with the above example: in case of transient, the service class will get its own instance of an injected parameter while in case of scoped it will get the same instance as the calling controller. This distinction is important if we need to share field values or states present in the injected objects.

Of course the DI framework needs to know in advance which implementation to link to which interface. This is done by registering them on application initialization and keep them in a context called a IoC container. Generally the application’s startup code calls a configuration method on a class like RegisterDependencies which contains code like:

services.AddTransient<IOperationTransient, Operation>();

In a .NET Core application this configuration will typically be done within or called from ConfigureServices(..) in Startup.cs.

By using dependency injection we have removed the dependencies of classes and components on each other, making it much easier to swap out or change individual components of a software system. Quite often it is possible to also control the scope and lifetime of instances through the IoC container (i.e. operations like AddScoped and AddSingleton). Also the benefits for (unit) testing are clear: we can easily create mock- or alternative implementations in a testing environment by implementing the parameter interfaces and pass them to the constructors.

The new ASP.NET MVC application structure

So for our ASP.NET MVC application, after the above our folder structure could look like this:

  |- Constants
  |- Controllers
  |- Mappers
  |- Models
       |- ViewModels
       |- DataModels
  |- Repositories
  |- ServiceClasses
  |- Views

We will have added some DI framework and a class like RegisterDependencies in our project root.

Of course the above is not a single perfect solution for every project, but in my opinion a modern ASP.NET MVC application is much more than just some models, controllers and views. Too often I see projects with code all over the place, quite often with random “helper” classes in cases where developers ran into issues with too complex code or redundancy. Hopefully this article helps.


[iv] CRUD: Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete. A term derived from the four standard data manipulation operations on records in a database.

Sitecore content search and LINQ (part 2)

This is part 2 of my post about Sitecore content search and LINQ. For the first part see

In the first part we set up our custom index and created a piece of code to use it. Now let’s say that we don’t only have products but also services to list on our site. We created a Sitecore template for them and want our Service items to be in the index as well. So we added our Service template ID to the index as we did before with the product template ID:


Don’t forget to regenerate your index and check with Luke the contents are there after publishing your first Service items! Sometimes you may have to restart IIS and regenerate again to get the index working. If it keeps failing clear the whole custom index folder in the Sitecore data folder and try to regenerate again.

We create a class for our service entries in our code:

using Sitecore.ContentSearch.SearchTypes;
namespace ScPredicateBuilderApp.DataObjects
   public class ServiceSearchResult:SearchResultItem
      public string ServiceName { get; set; }
      public string Description { get; set; }
      public double Rate { get; set; }

and some code to retrieve them from the index similar as we did for products but with the above class for type parameter in GetQueryable(). Of course C# generics can be very convenient to prevent a lot of duplicate code so you may want to change the SearchProducts() method of the previous part into something more generic:

/// <summary>
/// Get the index contents using search
/// </summary>
public List<T> SearchIndexContent<T>() where T : SearchResultItem
   ISearchIndex myIndex = ContentSearchManager.GetIndex("sitecore_myindex");
   using (var context = myIndex.CreateSearchContext())
      var query = context.GetQueryable<T>();
      var result = query.ToList();
      return result;

Now when calling this method pass either ProductSearchResult or ServiceSearchResult as type parameter to get a list of the corresponding type.

However… as said before Lucene entries are generic (“documents”) and Sitecore has no way of knowing what entry belongs to what type (class) you specified based on the index alone. It will try to map ALL entries to the type you passed, leaving empty properties for fields it cannot map. So the first thing we have to do when using contentsearch is add a filter on template to the Lucene query.

Adding a template filter

Where and how we pass the template ID to filter on is a matter of conventions in your working environment or personal preference. You can put a base class between SearchResultItem and your content search classes where you retrieve the template ID (and to define common properties), or pass it as a parameter when calling the above method. In this case I do the latter. So we add a parameter to the method:

public List<T> SearchIndexContent<T>(string templateId) where T : SearchResultItem

In this case I defined some configuration somewhere for my project and have the Sitecore IDs as string, passing them as such for parameter. Now we add a line in our using block and extend our query line with a filter on the template. In other words replace the “var query = ....” line with:

var tId=new ID(templateId);
var query = context.GetQueryable<T>().Filter(t=>t.TemplateId==tId);

Filter() is part of the LINQ interface Sitecore has implemented for contentsearch. There is also a Where() implementation. The difference is that Where returns a result taking Lucene’s scoring system into account whereas Filter just returns the result set. Since we don’t do anything with the scoring here we use Filter.

As with any LINQ implementation on a datasource you have to assign external parameters to a local variable before entering them into a LINQ expression to avoid so-called “modified closure” issues. These issues can cause nasty bugs that won’t give you a warning or error but can return incorrect results. Also, if the parameter in the Filter() expression is the result of a function or calculation you have to assign it first to a local variable or it will cause runtime exceptions. For example combining the above into something like:

var query = context.GetQueryable<T>().Filter(t=>t.TemplateId== new ID(templateId));

will NOT work. So always use a local variable as parameter in LINQ expressions.

You can chain LINQ methods just like any other LINQ implementation. Sitecore will take the expression and convert it to a Lucene query, returning the result as an IQueryable. Let’s say we want our products sorted on creation date, so something like:

var query = context.GetQueryable<T>().Filter(t=>t.TemplateId==tId).OrderByDescending(p=>p.CreatedDate);

will work. CreatedDate comes from a computed field that was already defined by Sitecore in our index configuration file as “__smallcreateddate”. It is one of the predefined properties on SearchResultItem.

Since our generic method takes SearchResultItem as type, we don’t have our product- or service specific properties here. However you can refer to fields directly using the Lucene field names and indexer. Let’s say we have a boolean field “Available” added to our Product template, we can do something like:

var query = context.GetQueryable<T>().Filter(t=>t.TemplateId==tId).Filter(p=>p["available"]=="1");

Note that using the Fields collection for the parameter (p=>p.Fields[“available”]) instead of the indexer uses a function get_Item() internally, causing an exception. It is one of many quirks you have to be aware of when using LINQ for contentsearch. Also you’re referring values as they are in Lucene this way, which means they’re not type-converted and thus might not give the results you expect. The above is therefore a string comparison.

Of course we now also have a problem for our ServiceSearchResult entries since they don’t have a field “available”. It results in a null value for the field and thus the above expression is always false.

Building LINQ expressions dynamically

So what if we want to have expressions depending on our item type? We could go back to making type-specific search functions, having to duplicate the template filtering expression (and probably more) in each one. Moreover, in real-world scenario’s we may not know in advance what expressions may be needed (a user may or may not select a specific search option). In short, we want to build our search expression from separate parts.

In comes Sitecore’s PredicateBuilder. This class resides in the Sitecore.ContentSearch.Linq.Utilities namespace and can be used to create and manipulate (partial) LINQ expressions for a given type. You start by either calling the True() or False() method, where you use True() for operations than need to be combined using logical “And “ and False() for logical “Or”. Then you use the And() or Or() methods for the comparison expression. The current version also has a Create<T>() method but at his point I cannot confirm it works the same as the True/And and False/Or method combinations under all circumstances.

These methods return an object of type System.Linq.Expressions.Expression. To make this all clear it is best to show an example. Say we put the expression for available products in a separate method, it will look like this:

/// <summary>
/// Return an expression for filtering on available products only
/// </summary>
/// <returns></returns>
public Expression<Func<ProductSearchResult, bool>> GetAvailableProductsExpression()
   var predicate = PredicateBuilder.True<ProductSearchResult>();    //True for "And"
   predicate = predicate.And(p => p.Available == true);
   return predicate;

Now we add a parameter of type Expression<Func<T, bool>> to our SearchIndexContent method, and pass the result of the above in when calling the search for products. For services we don’t pass in a specific expression and use a dummy expression in our SearchIndexContent method. It now looks like this:

/// <summary>
/// Get the index contents using search
/// </summary>
public List<T> SearchIndexContent<T>(string templateId, Expression<Func<T, bool>> expression = null) where T : SearchResultItem
   ISearchIndex myIndex = ContentSearchManager.GetIndex(Constants.IndexName);
   using (var context = myIndex.CreateSearchContext())
      var tId = new ID(templateId);
      // Dummy if null
      var exp = expression ?? PredicateBuilder.False<T>().Or(p => true);
      var query = context.GetQueryable<T>().Filter(t => t.TemplateId == tId).Filter(exp);
      var result = query.ToList();
      return result;

So to get our products we call it with:

var products = SearchIndexContent<ProductSearchResult>(Constants.ProductTemplateId, GetAvailableProductsExpression());

And to get our services:

var services = SearchIndexContent<ServiceSearchResult>(Constants.ServiceTemplateId);

(Note for this example code I defined the IDs of the templates as strings in a static Constants class.)

Predicate expressions can be combined and nested. Instead of putting a boolean expression in the And() or Or() methods directly you can put the result of another PredicateBuilder in. This way you can logically combine “And” and “Or” expressions, create large complex expressions from smaller parts and “inject” expressions based on user filter selections for example.

Using PredicateBuilder in general

As mentioned before the resulting expression of a PredicateBuilder operation is of a .NET type and not a Sitecore type. The PredicateBuilder is not tied to Sitecore’s content search itself. As far as I know you can use it with any type that can be cast using AsQueryable(). This can be quite handy, for example to do post-search filtering using the facets from the query.getResults() method mentioned in part 1 of this article. Or to perform post-search operations on the result set that Sitecore’s LINQ parser cannot translate to a search query.

There’s a lot more to Sitecore’s content search, LINQ and the PredicateBuilder than can be covered by this article. Unfortunately Sitecore’s documentation about it is far from complete, so you’ll have to look around on the web and experiment to figure out all that’s there.

Getting the demo code

I have uploaded a sample application to GitHub at It contains a simple Visual Studio 2013 solution, and a folder containing a package you can import into Sitecore to get the templates and some items. Since Sitecore libraries are proprietary software they are not included and you have to add them to the solution yourself. You need to have a working Sitecore 8 on your environment to be able to use this code, and set the demo project to publish to it.

Sitecore content search and LINQ (part 1)

With the rise of cloud services and today’s requirements for data retrieval, traditional relational- and tree data models with their query structures tend to be replaced with non-relational models and search-based query mechanisms. Within Sitecore this shift is noticable with the introduction of item buckets and the use of Sitecore contentsearch for larger amounts of data. Using a search engine based storage- and search mechanism does not only improve performance drastically but also improves flexibility of data retrieval. Since the release of Sitecore 7, Sitecore wants developers to favour indexes over the database for performance reasons. See

It is well known Sitecore may run into performance issues when a lot of items are stored in the content tree and searched by querying the traditional way. But also consider a scenario that’s not uncommon today:
Let’s say we have a user that got a gift card and wants to browse our webshop to see what’s available for the gift card amount. So he or she wants to enter something that translates to a query like “show me all products with a price tag less than …” or “all products added to the shop since …”. This cuts right through all categories so we’d have to query the whole tree structure, filtering out all products that do not apply. With a complex tree structure and a large number of product items, even Sitecore’s fast query will give performance issues.

By default Sitecore uses the open source Lucene engine but this can be replaced by the SOLR engine provider that comes with Sitecore, or another custom or 3rd party provider. When converting a folder in the content tree to an item bucket, it will use an index to retrieve items when you enter a search expression in the bucket’s search box. However you don’t need to use item buckets for using contentsearch; it works just as well with items stored in a conventional tree structure.

When showing our products on a public site, the information will normally come from the Sitecore web database, on which also a Lucene index is defined. However when using contentsearch, Sitecore recommends creating your own custom index instead of using the web index for a number of reasons:

  • The web index contains references for (almost) all items in the web database, decreasing performance;
  • By default the index does not store whole values, so you’d still have to retrieve individual items from the database;

By creating your own custom index (or multiple indices) you can specify to only contain the items you need, and store necessary data in the index so you don’t have to retrieve it from the database.

Creating a custom index

For creating a custom index you need to create two configuration files based on the web index. I’d recommend also installing Luke or some similar index viewer for troubleshooting. Luke is a Java application (.jar) so you need to install Java also.
There used to be a blog showing the minimum needed to create a custom index but that seems to be no longer online. So I’ll outline the process here:

  • Make a copy of these files in App_Config\Include in the website folder:
    • ContentSearch.Lucene.Index.Web.config ==> rename the copy to Sitecore.ContentSearch.Lucene.Index.MyIndex.config.
    • ContentSearch.Lucene.DefaultIndexConfiguration.config ==> rename the copy to Sitecore.ContentSearch.Lucene.MyIndexConfiguration.config.
  • In Sitecore.ContentSearch.Lucene.Index.MyIndex.config (= index definition):
    • Index node: rename the id from sitecore_web_index to sitecore_myindex.
    • Configuration node: set the ref atribute to “contentSearch/indexConfigurations/myIndexConfiguration”. We will create our own configuration in the other file under this XML path.
    • Note the settings like publishing strategy, database and root for the search. These can be left as-is or changed, i.e. use sitecore/Content/Products folder as root to only include items from this folder in the content tree. Leave the strategy to be “onPublishEndAsync”, which will update the index when publishing.
  • In Sitecore.ContentSearch.Lucene.MyIndexConfiguration.config (=index configuration)
    • Instead of keeping all sections in this file you can replace a lot of them with references to the original in the Sitecore.ContentSearch.Lucene.DefaultIndexConfiguration.config file. See Sitecore documentation and references for this.
    • Add the following directly under the <sitecore> tag:
<!--This section for database is so that the indexes get updated in any environment when an item changes -->
    <database id="web" singleInstance="true" type="Sitecore.Data.Database, Sitecore.Kernel">
        <obj type="Sitecore.Data.$(database).$(database)HistoryStorage, Sitecore.Kernel">
          <param connectionStringName="$(id)" />
  • Rename the “defaultLuceneIndexConfiguration” XML node to “myIndexConfiguration”.
  • Remove the “Settings” section since it is already in the default configuration file we copied from.
  • “IndexAllFields” must be left to true.
  • Remove the nodes under the “FieldNames” node, EXCEPT the “_uniqueid” one. The “_uniqueid” field is necessary for Sitecore.
  • In “FieldTypes” remove types you don’t need in the index. For the remaining change STORAGETYPE to YES to have the values stored for these fields in the index. When storing field values in the index you don’t need to retrieve them from the database. It will increase the size of your index but having to go to the database after each search would more or less nullify the performance you get from using search.
  • Uncomment the <include hint="list:IncludeTemplate"> node and remove the “BucketFolderTemplateId” node. We will specify the templates in here we want items to be indexed from.
  • Go through the other “field=” nodes to see if you’re ok with them (like excluding certain fields).

When done, log into Sitecore as admin, and go to the control panel and indexing manager. Your new index should be listed so you can (re)generate it (you may have to restart your site or webserver first). Once done it should have created a folder sitecore_myindex in your Sitecore data folder that you can open with Luke to see the new index contents. A number of fields (most of them starting with an underscore) will always be present as Sitecore indexes them by default.

The above creates a working custom index for a single server setup using Lucene. For multiple server setups SOLR may be a better solution than Lucene, and more configuration may be required depending on your environment.

Be aware that with using the “onPublishEndAsync” publishing strategy there may be a small delay between an item being published and the index being updated. This can result in an updated or newly created item not showing directly on your web site.

Storing information in the new index

We will be using our index for specific items. Let’s say we have to build a website showing product information, and defined a template “Product” in Sitecore for creating product items. In Sitecore.ContentSearch.Lucene.MyIndexConfiguration.config, in de <include hint="list:IncludeTemplate"> node, add a node:


where {guid} should be the guid of your product template. Rebuild the index from the Sitecore control panel. Now when creating an item based on the “Product” template it should be present in the index after publishing. Using Luke, open your custom index and look for fields you defined in the template or check “_uniqueid” to see if the guid of the new item is present. Note that every time you add or change something to the configuration file or when changing a template you need to regenerate the index from Sitecore’s control panel!

Using the custom index

We can now use our custom index from code for retrieving data without going to the database, which is way faster and can be used to search through and retrieve large numbers of items. Assuming you have already set up a Visual Studio project for your Sitecore site, you need to add references to Sitecore.ContentSearch.dll and Sitecore.ContentSearch.Linq.dll to your project. Then create a class to reflect the product information from the index:

using System;
using System.ComponentModel;
using Sitecore.ContentSearch;
using Sitecore.ContentSearch.SearchTypes;

public class ProductSearchResult: SearchResultItem
  public string ProductName { get; set; }
  public string Description { get; set; }
  public string SerialNumber { get; set; }
  public DateTime Released { get; set; }

The properties have to correspond with the field names otherwise you will need to annotate them with attributes to map them, and they must have empty public setters. The class has to derive from SearchResultItem, which will also give it properties like ItemId and Name that will correspond with the item in the Sitecore database. Note the name “SearchResultItem” is misleading since the class itself has nothing to do with actual Sitecore items, and searchresults are not linked to a database in any way.

Now add a method somewhere in your code that will use this class for retrieving the data, which can look like this:

/// <summary>
/// Get the products from Sitecore, using search
/// </summary>
public List<ProductSearchResult> SearchProducts()
  ISearchIndex myIndex = ContentSearchManager.GetIndex("sitecore_myindex");
  using (var context = myIndex.CreateSearchContext())
     var query = context.GetQueryable<ProductSearchResult>();
     var result = query.ToList();
     return result;

First you need to get an ISearchIndex instance from ContentSearchManager by telling Sitecore what index to get. Then we create a search context from this instance. From this context we request a IQueryable for our type which we can cast to a list containing our data from the index.

Instead of using the query directly we can also call GetResults() to retrieve the data from the index along with metadata and faceting. Note that the GetResults() method is an extension method that resides in the Sitecore.ContentSearch.Linq.dll library. The result returned is an object containing a SearchHit collection. Each SearchHit has a property Document that is an object of the type specificied on the query, in our case ProductSearchResult. This is where the data of our search result can be found. So the last two lines of the above could be replaced by the following to return the same result:

var result = query.GetResults();
return result.Hits.Select(p=>p.Document).ToList();

The code from this example will return every entry in the index. Often we will store more than one type of item in an index by entering more than one template in the configuration. The above will always map the entries matching a query to the given type even if the corresponding Sitecore item is of a different type (template), so when having more than one type in the index you’ll have to filter on template. I’ll explain in part 2 of this post how you can request a selection from the index.

WARNING: do NOT use the Dispose() method on the index object or use it in a using context! You will end up with a corrupt index when you do. After filing a bug report Sitecore claimed this is by design and the Dispose() is intended for internal use only (even though there is no tooltip or any documentation about this).

Mapping index fields

The SearchResultItem class has a Fields collection to access the fields by name much similar to a Sitecore Item object. However accessing the field values directly this way bypasses any conversions and mappings done by Sitecore and you get the raw values. Since Lucene is a third party product and using optimizations for storage, you have to be aware of differences in formats between Sitecore and Lucene fields. Most noticably:

  • All field names in the index are in lowercase.
  • All IDs (Guids) are in short ID format (no brackets or hyphens). Sitecore contains operations on ID type objects to convert them.
  • Datetimes are in a format derived from ISO 8601 format.
  • The ItemId property which contains the corresponding item ID is stored in the “_group” field.

On the class derived from SearchResultItem, you can use the [Indexfield] attribute to map an index field to a property explicitly. Note you have to specify the Lucene index field name. The [TypeConverter] attribute can be used to explicitly convert an index field to a type. The Sitecore.ContentSearch.Converters namespace contains specific conversion types for Sitecore, like the [IndexFieldIDValueConverter] to map fields containing IDs.

As an example for our ProductSearchResult class:

public DateTime ReleaseDate { get; set; }

Computed fields and related (media) items

You can store computed field values in an index and set them as property on your SearchResultItem-derived class. This is particularly handy for storing the reference paths to related items like media items, since fields like “image” only store the alt text in the index. By creating a computed field to store the media item reference in you can get your related media item references directly from the index. In Sitecore documentation you can find how to create computed fields. You can add computed fields to the index by adding them to the <fields hint="raw:AddComputedIndexField"> section of your index configuration file. Since you’re storing calculated values be aware of how and when Sitecore updates them or you end up with stale values!

As for the actual content of these media items you still have to get them from the Sitecore media library of course, or use a third party product with a connector to store your media items in. This goes beyond the scope of this article. You  can index the actual content of some types of media items like PDF files by using IFilters, as described by John West in his blog on

I explain about filtering and using the LINQ interface for contentsearch in the next part on

ASP.NET session state and authentication

A few weeks after rebuilding a security implementation of an existing ASP.NET webforms system, I got a call from my client saying one of their customers lost their in-session data and was confronted with defaults from the system. A quick look at the logs showed the customer in this case had left the system idle for a while, then returned after a session timeout had occured. As expected the user was redirected to the logon screen, but managed somehow to get back into the system bypassing the logon (although of course not as a different user).


After some research looking into the configuration I found the installation of a third-party component we used in the system had added a line to the web.config:

<sessionState timeout=”20” …….

As for the authentication, the system used ASP.NET forms authentication with the default timeout, which is 30 minutes. At this point it is important to realize that ASP.NET authentication is not connected to a particular session. ASP.NET configured for forms authentication creates an authentication ticket with a timeout that is usually stored in an authentication cookie (with default name “.ASPXAUTH”). Setting the timeout on the forms authentication does NOT set the session timeout, something that is often misunderstood or overlooked in ASP.NET applications.

Apparently the user in this case had a session timeout but after being redirected to the logon page used the browser’s back button BEFORE the authentication timeout occured. The difference between session state timeout and authentication timeout had left a 10 minute window where a user without a session was still authenticated. Since the user still had a valid authentication ticket, the system just created a new session but of course the previously stored session information was lost, presenting the user with default settings.

Synchronize session and authentication

To avoid the above situation from happening, first of all set the authentication timeout and the session timeout to at least the same values. By default authentication uses a sliding expiration unless configured not to, meaning the counter is reset on user activity (but not necessarily after each request). For session state this is always the case.

Depending on your requirements you can choose a strategy to avoid getting sessions out of sync with authentication. One way is to just reinitialize the session if it was expired and the user is still logged in. This is easy if no or little information is kept in relation to the session. Another way is to make sure session ending does end the authentication and vice versa.

Part 1: end authentication when session is expired

To implement ending the authentication after session expiration, first make sure the session sticks by entering something into it, otherwise the session will get renewed on every request. To do this, directly after authenticating the user store the session ID in a session variable. So in a logon form (ASP.NET webforms) or ASP.NET MVC controller it will look something like:

//Authentication, validation etc.

FormsAuthentication.SetAuthCookie(UserName, false);
Session["__MyAppSession"] = Session.SessionID;

Since we are going to bind our authentication to the session, it is pointless to set the createPersistentCookie parameter to true of course.

Now we can check on any request if we still have the session active, and if not log out the user. The exact place to do this can be tricky and causes a lot of questions on forums and such, but arguably the best location is in the Application_AcquireRequestState event in global.asax.

Since there’s no guarantee we have a valid user or session in this event, we need to do a lot of null-checking. The code will look like this:

void Application_AcquireRequestState(object sender, EventArgs e)
 var session = System.Web.HttpContext.Current.Session;
 if (session == null || string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(session.SessionID)) return;
 var userIsAuthenticated = User != null &&
 User.Identity != null &&
 if (userIsAuthenticated && !session.SessionID.Equals(Session["__MyAppSession"]))
 // part 2 gets here
private void Logoff()
    var authCookie = new HttpCookie(FormsAuthentication.FormsCookieName, string.Empty) { Expires = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-1) }; 

Now, if a request is sent while the session expired with the user still authenticated, the stored ID (or actually the session variable “__MyAppSession”) will no longer be present and the user will be logged of. The part with the cookie I will explain below.

Part 2: end session when authentication ends (timeout)

This can be added quite easily. After the comment in the above event code, add the following:

if (!userIsAuthenticated && session.SessionID.Equals(Session["__MyAppSession"]))

And the ClearSession method:

private void ClearSession()
    var sessionCookie = new HttpCookie("ASP.NET_SessionId", string.Empty) { Expires = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-1) };

Now if a session exists with session information while the user is no longer authenticated, the session will be abandoned.

Part 3: full user logout

When a user actively logs off we have to clear both the authentication and the session. Since this is usually a single “fire and forget” operation that can be called from various places it’s usually implemented best as a static operation in a logical place.

Per recommendation it is best not to only call FormsAuthentication.SignOut() and session.Abandon(), but to actively overwrite the cookies with ones having expired dates. So a full logoff will look like this:

public static void Logoff()
    var authCookie = new HttpCookie(FormsAuthentication.FormsCookieName, string.Empty) { Expires = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-1) };
    var sessionCookie = new HttpCookie("ASP.NET_SessionId", string.Empty) { Expires = DateTime.Now.AddYears(-1) };

In the above Session and Response are of course from the context (controller or form).

A note on ASP.NET MVC: per recommendation MVC applications should be stateless as much as possible, and not store information in the session. In this case it doesn’t really matter if the session gets renewed automatically while a user is still authenticated since there shouldn’t be any persistent information in there anyway.

Sitecore 7.0 with Windows Identity Foundation 4.5 security

Recently I found myself on a project with the task to implement signin for a new intranet platform based on Sitecore 7.0, using MVC and .NET 4.5 running in the Windows Azure cloud platform. Per requirements the end customer didn’t want to maintain user information within Sitecore but use multiple ADFS 2.0- and other domains for authentication. The Azure Access Control Services (ACS) would be the central gateway for user authentication.

The requirements called for a federated security model combined with Sitecore virtual users. Since the platform is all .NET 4.5 the logical choice for implementing the federated security was the Windows Identity Foundation (WIF). For using WIF within a .NET application Microsoft already provides a lot of examples, many of them not even requiring code but using configuration only. However almost all of these examples apply to a more or less standard .NET application and won’t work within a Sitecore environment. Main reason for this is differences between the .NET 4.5 claim-based security implementation and the Sitecore security model. Also with .NET 4.5 WIF has been fully integrated into the .NET framework core and therefore has some differences with earlier versions.

WIF, ACS and Sitecore

In this post I’ll explain a way on how to implement WIF security in a Sitecore 7.0/ MVC environment. For this article I assume the reader is familiair with terms and abbreviations used in federated security and WIF. If not there’s plenty of information to be found on the net. I also won’t go into details of setting up ACS itself or (the trusts with) ADFS 2.0 domains. A detailed explanation of how this works can be found at and related articles.

For the rest of this article you should have created and configured an ACS namespace for you or your organization with at least one identity provider. For legal reasons any code, configuration and references here are examples and not from the actual project. In production environments more exception- and security handling is required.

Steps involved

In our implementation, when a user that’s not yet authenticated goes to the site, the following main steps take place:

  1. Our system makes a request to the ACS to retrieve the list with information for the configured identity providers. The user is redirected to our “login” page, which is similar to normal forms authentication except the user is presented with the list of identity providers instead of a username/ password page, and has to pick the provider of his or her choice;
  2. After picking a provider, the system calls the login url that came with the information from the ACS. If the user is already authenticated with this provider, it immediately returns a security token with a claimset. If not, the user is presented with a login page or box by this provider and has to log in;
  3. The token and claimset is returned through the ACS which may or may not transform or add any information, depending on how it is configured. The ACS returns a security token and the claimset to our system;
  4. WIF intercepts the returned information and performs the necessary checks and steps. See the MSDN pages on “WSFederationAuthenticationModule” for more information;
  5. Our system retrieves the information (claims) through the WIF modules.
  6. With this information we create a Sitecore virtual user, add the necessary roles and attributes to it and log in.

Step 1: Get a list of registered (trusted) IP’s from ACS

First step is to get the configured providers information from our ACS. This can be done by a call to a Javascript endpoint that exists on the ACS. This call can have a bunch of query parameters, of which three are required:

  • protocol, in this case wsfederation
  • version, in this case 1.0
  • realm, the url of your (future) web application that has been configured in your ACS portal as a RP (Relying Party) application.

Let’s say we have configured http://localhost/ on our ACS as relying party, it will look like the following:

where namespace is the namespace that you registered with ACS for you or your organization. This call will return a JSON structure containing an array of objects (one for each configured identity provider) that translates to the following C# class:

public class IdentityProvider
  public List<string> EmailAddressSuffixes { get; set; }
  public string ImageUrl { get; set; }
  public string LoginUrl { get; set; }
  public string LogoutUrl { get; set; }
  public string Name { get; set; }

Note that the returned JSON structure uses Microsoft C# naming convention and not the common Javascript convention. When using JSON.NET to deserialize the response the code for sending the request and getting the result will look like the following:

 List<IdentityProvider> Providers;
 using (System.Net.WebClient webClient = new System.Net.WebClient())
   webClient.Encoding = System.Text.Encoding.UTF8;
   string jsonResponse = webClient.DownloadString(requestString);
   Providers = JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<List<IdentityProvider>>(jsonResponse);

Where RequestString must contain the request as shown before. We used a simple form with a submit button and a dropdown box. The dropdown listed the Name property of each provider, and used the serialized provider object for value so we didn’t have to store anything in session variables or hidden fields, keeping our application stateless as recommended for MVC applications.

Step 2: Request authentication from chosen IP

Once the user selected an identity provider (IP), we deserialize the value back to our Provider object and use the value of the LoginUrl property to request authentication from that IP. In an MVC environment we can do this very easily by returning a Redirect action result to that URL. The LoginUrl property should contain the full URL (including going through the ACS) with all information required. Let’s say the user selected an IP and the submit action calls this Controller method (The SelectedIdentityProvider parameter should contain the value property of the chosen provider from the dropdown):

public ActionResult ProviderSelected(string SelectedIdentityProvider)
IdentityProvider provider;
//Code to retrieve the SelectedIdentityProvider object and assign it to provider
return Redirect(provider.LoginUrl);

If not yet authenticated the user should be presented with a login box or screen by that IP. Once authenticated, the IP returns the issued security token to our ACS namespace which was set as the wreply parameter in the Login URL.

Step 3: Returning the security token and claims

On the ACS portal we should have configured our Sitecore application as relying party and set the “Return URL” field to the URL of a controller method that handles further login. Optionally we can set a “Error URL” and implement an error handling controller method in case something went wrong on the IP side.

The ACS calls back to our application on the return URL. This return call should be intercepted and processed by the WIF modules (see next step) and then WIF actually calls the return URL on our application. This processing involves validating the returned token and then creating a ClaimsPrincipal, using this to create a session security token. Because the WIF modules reside in the ASP.NET pipeline the security can be implemented in a standard .NET application using configuration only. However this ClaimsPrincipal is an IPrincipal implementation and this is where the problem arises within a Sitecore 7.0 environment, since Sitecore security and users do not derive (yet?) from this claims model.

Step 4: Setting up WIF to process the returned security token and claims

The core modules here are the WSFederationAuthenticationModule and the SessionAutentication modules, which both exist as properties on the FederationAutentication static class. In .NET 4.5 the classes reside in the System.IdentityModel.Services Namespace. You need to add references to System.IdentityModel and System.identityModel.Services in your project. Note that the second reference may (accidentally?) contain a lowercase “i”, violating the usual Microsoft naming convention.

We derived our own ScFederationAuthenticationModule and ScSessionAuthentication from these classes since in both(!) classes we need to override the InitializeModule, the InitializePropertiesFromConfiguration and the OnAuthenticateRequest methods. We define two boolean properties moduleInitialized and propertiesInitialized on each of our our derived classes. See also for this.

protected override void InitializeModule(System.Web.HttpApplication context)
  if (this.moduleInitialized) return;
  this.moduleInitialized = true;

protected override void InitializePropertiesFromConfiguration()
  if (this.propertiesInitialized) return;
  this.propertiesInitialized = true;

protected override void OnAuthenticateRequest(object sender, EventArgs args)
  // Skip event if Sitecore user already authenticated.
  if (Sitecore.Context.User != null && Sitecore.Context.User.IsAuthenticated)
  base.OnAuthenticateRequest(sender, args);

The overrides are necessary to prevent WIF from interfering after we have created and signed in our (virtual) user in Sitecore.

The WIF modules need to be in the ASP.NET pipeline so they need to be added to web.config. Under the <modules> node in <system.webServer> add the following 2 entries:

<add name="WSFederationAuthenticationModule" type="SitecoreFedSecurity.ScFederationAuthenticationModule, SitecoreFedSecurity" />
<add name="SessionAuthenticationModule" type="SitecoreFedSecurity.ScSessionAuthenticationModule, SitecoreFedSecurity" />

with SitecoreFedSecurity being the namespace and assembly name for our derived classes. These entries need to be right after the Sitecore.Nexus.Web.HttpModule entry.

We then need to define 2 configuration sections for these modules:

<section name="system.identityModel" type="System.IdentityModel.Configuration.SystemIdentityModelSection, System.IdentityModel, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=B77A5C561934E089" />
<section name="" type="System.IdentityModel.Services.Configuration.SystemIdentityModelServicesSection, System.IdentityModel.Services, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=B77A5C561934E089" />

And the definitions of these sections:

      <add value="http://localhost/" />
      <add type="System.IdentityModel.Services.Tokens.MachineKeySessionSecurityTokenHandler, System.IdentityModel.Services, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089" />
      <remove type="System.IdentityModel.Tokens.SessionSecurityTokenHandler, System.IdentityModel, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089" />
    <certificateValidation certificateValidationMode="None" />
    <issuerNameRegistry type="System.IdentityModel.Tokens.ConfigurationBasedIssuerNameRegistry, System.IdentityModel, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089">
      <add thumbprint="[certificate thumbprint]" name="" />
    <cookieHandler requireSsl="false" />
    <wsFederation passiveRedirectEnabled="false" issuer="https://[namespace]" realm="http://localhost/" requireHttps="false" persistentCookiesOnPassiveRedirects="false" />

This configuration is explained in various articles about WIF so I won’t go into detail here. A note though about the issuerNameRegistry node: there seems to be two variants, of which this is the one that currently seems to work. Previously you needed to add System.IdentityModel.Tokens.ValidatingIsserNameRegistry from NuGet (which has a different setup) to your project and which can be found in various examples on the net, but that doesn’t seem to work anymore. See “

Replace the references to localhost with your own application’s URL if it is different. There’s two other things here specific for your situation: [namespace] should be replaced with your specific ACS namespace, and [certificate thumbprint] is the thumbprint of the X.509 certificate for your ACS namespace. It can be found in the ACS portal under “Certificates and Keys”.

Aside from the above configuration your application should expose a FederationMetadata.xml which simplifies maintenance on the ACS. See the Microsoft documentation on this. The location of this file and a few other paths need to be accessible for any (anonymous) user. See the Notes at the end of this post.

Step 5: Retrieving claims information

Now that we have WIF set up in our system, we can implement the Controller method we have set as return URL on the ACS to retrieve the information from the claimset. Since we need to create and authenticate a Sitecore user, we need to retrieve the necessary information from WIF and perform a few checks. In our case we named the controller method for the return URL SignIn:

public string SignIn()
  bool result = false;
  System.IdentityModel.Tokens.SessionSecurityToken sessionToken = null;
  System.Security.Claims.ClaimsPrincipal claimsPrincipal = null;
    result = ((SCSessionAuthenticationModule)FederatedAuthentication.SessionAuthenticationModule).TryReadSessionTokenFromCookie(out sessionToken);
    if (result) claimsPrincipal = sessionToken.ClaimsPrincipal;
  catch (System.Exception ex)
    return string.Format("Could not retrieve session security token cookie. Could not create user. Exception: {0}", ex.Message);
  //Check status
  if ((claimsPrincipal == null) || (claimsPrincipal.Identity == null))
    return "No claimsPrincipal is set. Could not create user";
  if (!claimsPrincipal.Identity.IsAuthenticated)
    return string.Format("Chosen identity provider did not authenticate identity {0}", claimsPrincipal.Identity.Name);
  //TODO: Create a virtual user based on the principal

We access the securitytoken cookie set by WIF through the TryReadSessionTokenFromCookie method of the SessionAuthenticationModule. Despite the “Try..” naming of the method it still throws an exception if the cookie could not be read, so you need to add exception handling here. After getting the token you need to verify the principal is present, and the user is actually authenticated by the IP.

Step 6: Creating the (virtual) Sitecore user and log in

Now that we have the information from the identity provider we can create and log in our Sitecore virtual user. Replace the “TODO” comment in the above code with the following:

string identifier = (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(claimsPrincipal.Identity.Name)) ?
  		claimsPrincipal.Claims.FirstOrDefault().Value :
Sitecore.Security.Accounts.User user = Sitecore.Security.Authentication.AuthenticationManager.BuildVirtualUser("extranet\\" + identifier, true);
//Add any roles or attributes for the user here, before login
return string.Empty;

The Name property should be set by WIF from the corresponding claim, but not all identity providers include a name in the claimset so it can be null. Windows Live for example only returns an unique ID. In our example here we pick the first claim from the set but which claim you need depends on your situation. We also haven’t set any roles or additional properties here but that should be pretty straightforward using the Sitecore API.

Signing out

Besides a login URL, the identity provider information also contains a signout URL we can use to sign out the user with the chosen IP. Completely signing out can involve 4 steps:

  • Sign out of Sitecore with AuthenticationManager.Logout();
  • Sing out WIF with the SignOut() method on the WSFederationAuthenticationModule (or rather our derived class);
  • Sign out with the identity provider with WSFederationAuthenticationModule.FederatedSignOut(..), using the signout URL;
  • Sign out with ACS using WSFederationAuthenticationModule.GetFederationPassiveSignOutUrl(..)

Federated security and signing out can be problematic. It is up to the identity provider if and how to process a signout request, and it may not be possible to sign out because it completely ignores these requests. Other providers abort the above sequence because they do not return after the signout request but display a message page instead. There has been quite some criticism towards Microsoft also for providing plenty of examples for federated security signin but little examples about signing out. Be aware that especially in public environments, even after the above steps (and even after closing the browser as some providers instruct you to do!), the user may not be signed out by the IP, causing an automatic authentication without having to login on a subsequent session.


A few things must be kept in mind when implementing this security model:

  • The Sitecore CMS still needs the built-in users to be able to access through the CMS login page. Also the FederationMetaData should be accessible, and possibly some other paths containing styles, images or scripts. We use the <location> configuration setting to give access to all users on these folders:
    <location path="FederationMetadata">
          <allow users="*" />

    Unfortunately the <location> setting can take only one path so you need to create an entry like this for every path.

  • Make sure you have set up MVC routing properly for your Sitecore environment for the callbacks from the ACS to work.
  • Both WIF modules contain an OnAuthenticateRequest. As it turns out this name is somewhat confusing as it is called on every request, and the actual check whether or not it is a request for authentication is done within the (base) implementation of this method.
  • When hooking up WIF events, be aware that the WIF modules are alive al long as the session is active because they are set as properties on the (static) FederationAutentication class, but MVC objects like controllers are disposed between calls. So when WIF is processing a request and firing the various events before calling the return URL, there is no MVC controller alive.
  • Since this all involves security and users, I got remarks that there should be an ASP.NET MembershipProvider somewhere. It is possible to implement certain parts in methods of a custom MembershipProvider if it needs to be enriched with information from Sitecore or another local storage. Do realize membershiproviders are nothing more than an abstraction between user information storage and applications, and within a federated security model this is is all delegated to the identity provider.

My first post

So, I finally got around to starting a blog. As so many things nowadays on the net, it is surprisingly easy to set up. So why didn’t I start one before?

Main reason is that in my opinion there’s already an overload of blogs, articles, forums and what not on the net that add little or nothing to the world. “Information overload” is one of the biggest issues we have to deal with today. So I never had the urge to add just more to that. However, lately I found myself increasingly in need of “publishing space” for information that others told me could be interesting to share.

My intention is to write posts just for sharing thoughts but also posts that will be of a quite technical nature. In fact the main reason to start this blog now comes from a fellow software engineer who gave me the advice to publish something about a technical issue I solved recently on a project. So here it is: my own blog.